Altered expression of gustatory-signaling elements in gastric tissue of morbidly obese patients
Widmayer P, Küper M, Kramer M, Königsrainer A and H Bree.
International Journal of Obesity
Objective: Sensing of nutrients in the stomach is of crucial importance for the regulation of ingestive behavior especially in the context of metabolic dysfunctions such as obesity. Cells in the gastric mucosa with taste-signaling elements are considered as candidates for sensing the composition of ingested food and consequently modulate gastrointestinal processes. To assess whether obesity might have an impact on gastric chemosensory cells, gastric tissue samples from morbidly obese patients and normal-weight subjects were compared using a reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, qPCR and immunohistochemical approach.
Results: Analysis of biopsy tissue samples from human stomach revealed that transcripts for the taste-signaling elements, including the receptor T1R3 involved in the reception of amino acids and carbohydrates, the fatty acid receptor GPR120, the G protein gustducin, the effector enzyme PLCβ2 and the ion channel TRPM5 are present in the human gastric mucosa and led to the visualization of candidate chemosensory cells in the stomach expressing gustatory marker molecules. RT-PCR and qPCR analyses indicated striking differences in the expression profiles of specimens from obese subjects compared with controls. For GPR120, gustducin, PLCβ2 and TRPM5 the expression levels were increased, whereas for T1R3 the level decreased. Using TRPM5 as an example, we found that the higher expression level was associated with a higher number of TRPM5 cells in gastric tissue samples from obese patients. This remarkable change was accompanied by an increased number of ghrelin-positive cells.
Conclusions: Our findings argue for a relationship between the amount of food intake and/or the energy status and the number of candidate chemosensory cells in the gastric mucosa.
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