Body weight status and obstructive sleep apnea in children
Kang KT, Lee PL, Weng WC and Hsu WC
International Journal of Obesity
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between weight status, adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children has not yet been well studied. As the sleep parameters may show a disparity in different weight statuses, this study examined the relationship between the data of over-night polysomnography and different weight statuses, as well as the impact of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on children with OSA.
METHODS: Children with sleep disturbances were recruited from our clinics. Standard physical examinations, history taking, lateral neck roentgenography, and full-night polysomnography were obtained. Children were divided into four groups based on the age- and gender-corrected body mass index (BMI): underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. An adenoidal/nasopharyngeal ratio of more than 0.67 was considered adenoidal hypertrophy. Tonsillar hypertrophy was defined as having Grade III tonsils or above.
RESULTS: From July 2006 to January 2009, 197 children were included in this study. Obese children had a significantly higher apnea–hypopnea index (AHI), obstructive apnea index and lower minimum oxygen saturation (MinSaO2) than those of the other groups. Underweight children had the second highest AHI. A negative correlation was also found between BMI z scores and MinSaO2 (r=−0.194; P=0.007). Children with tonsillar hypertrophy (P=0.001) were associated with a higher risk of having OSA. The risk of having OSA was significantly higher in obese children (P=0.001) and underweight children (P=0.043) than in those with a normal weight.
CONCLUSION:Obesity, underweight status and tonsillar hypertrophy are associated with children having OSA, and obese children have a significantly higher risk than children with underweight status.
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