Prevalence of overweight and obesity in preschool children and associated socio-demographic factors in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Dieu HTT, Dibley MJ, Sibbritt D, Hanh TTM
Objective. To evaluate the magnitude of overweight and obesity and its relationship with socio-demographic factors among preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Methods. This is the baseline measurement from a one-year follow-up study on obesity in children attending kindergartens in HCMC with a sample of 670 children. Socio-demographic information was collected using an interview-administered, pre-coded questionnaire. Weight and height were measured. Body mass index (BMI: kg/m2) was calculated and overweight/obesity was defined using age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 20.5% (95% CI: 17.5, 24.3) and 16.3% (95% CI: 13.2, 20.4), respectively. The level of overweight/obesity was similar in both less wealthy and wealthy urban areas: 35.9% (95% CI: 29.4, 42.9) and 38.9% (95% CI: 32.3, 45.0), respectively. A multivariate model showed that gender, parental overweight, paternal education, high birth weight, duration of breast-feeding and sleep hours at night were all significantly associated with overweight/obesity (p < 0.05). The prevalence ratio of overweight/obesity and obesity in children where both parents were overweight were 1.87 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.54) and 2.59 (95% CI: 1.46, 4.61) times, respectively, higher than for children whose parents were of normal weight. The prevalence ratio of being obese significantly decreased by 5% (PR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.98) for each additional month of breast-feeding. Conclusions. Overweight and obesity is a public health problem in preschool children and apparently becoming widespread in urban areas of HCMC. Overweight and obesity in children were strongly associated with parental overweight status, but longer duration of breast-feeding and longer sleep duration at night appear to protect against overweight and obesity in young children.
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