Association of pre- and post-natal parental smoking with offspring body mass index: an 8-year follow-up of a birth cohort
Florath I, Kohler M, Weck MN et al
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with offspring overweight, but it is still unclear whether this association is due to confounding by parental lifestyle habits or caused by direct effects of intrauterine tobacco smoke exposure.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy was validated by cord serum cotinine measurements and the offspring body mass index was assessed at various ages.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy was significantly associated with offspring body mass index at 8 years of age with a trend for increased body mass index from 4 years of age onwards.
Paternal smoking and smoking of both parents at pre- and post-natal periods was positively associated with offspring body mass index, which suggests residual confounding by lifestyle habits in smoking families rather than intrauterine effects.
See this paper on the web (membership may be required)